Donald Trump's linguistic dexterity may be questionable, but the US president's lexicon has had an impact on the English language, which is reflected in the latest additions to oxforddictionaries.com, the online reference guide to current English.
New coinages that reflect the latest wave of online political activism form a significant section of more than 300 new definitions in the database, which is a sister work to the Oxford English Dictionary.
Additions including "clicktivism" (a pejorative word for armchair activists on social media), "haterade" (excessive negativity, criticism, or resentment), "otherize" (view or treat – a person or group of people – as intrinsically different from and alien to oneself) and "herd mentality" (the tendency for people's behaviour or beliefs to conform to those of the group to which they belong) all emerged during the 2016 battle for the White House, said head of content development Angus Stevenson.
"We are getting a convergence of high-level politics and online language in quite a new way," Stevenson said. "We had all the words around Brexit in the last update and we are now starting to see all the words around Trump coming into the dictionary."
Stevenson said that new terms from Trump, his supporters and opponents were emerging more rapidly than in the past. "We have lots to add all the time. We don't have 'fake news' or 'alternative fact' this time, because they have just started gaining currency, but I am sure they will be in the next update," he added.
史蒂文森说，来自特朗普及其支持者与反对者的这些新词的出现速度比以往任何时候都快。他还补充说："我们总是有很多词语要添加。这一次，我们没有收录'fake news'(假消息)及'alternative fact'(另类事实)，因为它们刚开始流传，但我可以确定的是下次更新词典时，它们将被收入。"
As well as political terms, public conversations about diet, fitness and gender were a strong influence on the words included in the latest update. "Superfruit", a nutrient-rich fruit considered to be especially beneficial for health and wellbeing; HIIT, the acronym for high-intensity interval training; and "third gender", a category of people who do not identify simply as male or female, all made it into the online database.
与政治词汇一样，人们关于饮食、健康和性别的交谈也对这次的词汇更新造成了很大的影响。"Superfruit"(超级水果)，指的是一种富含营养的水果，对身体健康非常有益;"HIIT"，是"high-intensity interval training"(高强度间隔训练)的首字母缩写;"third gender"(第三性别)，指的是那种无法被简单判定为男性或女性的群体。这些词语都被纳入了在线数据库中。
Social media were the source for many of the new coinages, though most were the kind of compounds that would have language purists clutching their pearls. "Craptacular" (remarkably poor and disappointing), "bronde" (hair dyed both blond and brunette) and "fitspiration" (a person or thing that serves as motivation for someone to sustain or improve health and fitness) all made the cut.
Stevenson said the need for brevity on Twitter was not responsible for rising numbers of compound words, but it had widened the pool of those inventing new terms. "People feel much freer to coin their own words these days," he said, advising anyone who wished to make a permanent dent in the English language to make sure that their word sounded attractive. Citing the word "vlog", he said ugly-sounding words tended not to gain very wide currency. He added: "They have to have a euphonious sound."